Glasgow History of Medicine Seminars – Winter/Spring Programme 2017

We have an exciting programme lined up for our winter/spring 2017 Glasgow History of Medicine Seminars in partnership with the Centre for the History of Medicine (part of the Institute of Health and Wellbeing at Glasgow University) – we hope you can join us!

Tuesday, 24 January 2017
Poles and Jews in Wartime Scotland: the Experience of Edinburgh’s Polish School of Medicine
Speaker: Dr Kenneth Collins (University of Glasgow and Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
A talk examining the relationships and tensions between poles and Jews at the Polish School of Medicine, based on archival records and testimonies.

Tuesday, 21 February 2017
Vitamins on Trial: Folic Acid as a Technology of Reproduction and Public Health
Speaker: Dr Salim Al-Gailani (University of Cambridge)
This talk examines the history of folic acid, its implications beyond reproduction, and the role of consumer activism in shaping public health policy.

Tuesday, 21 March 2017
Philanthropy, Patriotism and Paediatric Nursing: Glasgow’s Royal Hospital for Sick Children through five objects
Speaker: Dr Iain Hutchison (University of Glasgow)
Taking five objects as focal points, Dr Hutchison will discuss the roles played by charity, emotion, patriotism and conflict, and by often under-valued nursing care during the hospital’s pre-NHS era.

Tuesday, 25 April 2017
Regulation and Resistance – a history of non-human antibiotic use in the US and UK (1949-2013)
Speaker: Dr Claas Kirchhelle (University of Oxford)
This presentation will examine the long history of antibiotic use in Western food production, the development of agricultural antibiotic use, and examine why regulations designed to curb bacterial resistance developed differently in the US and Europe.

The seminars take place at 5:30pm (tea/coffee from 5pm) in the library reading room at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. They are free to attend but please contact library@rcpsg.ac.uk or call 0141 221 6072 to book as places are limited.

Glasgow History of Medicine programme - winter/spring 2017

Glasgow History of Medicine programme – winter/spring 2017

 

 

Maister Peter Lowe and Glasgow

Our first event of 2017 will be an informal gathering in College Hall on Thursday 19th January to hear our Honorary Librarian, Mr Roy Miller, discuss our founder Maister Peter Lowe and the town of Glasgow, c1599.

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We will hear about the background of this intriguing man, his arrival in Glasgow from France in the 1590s, and what compelled him to petition King James VI to set up what became the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow in 1599. Lowe’s education and surgical training in France, and his writings on the practice of surgery, played a key role in how medicine and surgery developed in Glasgow at this early stage.

The event will take place in our College Hall, which features portraits of our founding members and of James VI. In addition, there will be a pop-up display of historical collections relating to our early history, for example our first Minute Book (1602 – 1688), rare copies of Peter Lowe’s 16th century surgical texts, and a pair of gloves belonging to the founder.

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Detail of first College Minute Book, summarising 1599 Charter (1602)

Our event is part of St Mungo Festival, now in its ninth year, which celebrates the life of St Kentigern, better known as St Mungo, patron saint of Glasgow. Find out more about the Festival and its programme of events at the St Mungo Festival Facebook page.

Here are the details of the event:

Date – Thursday 19th January 2017

Time – 12.30 – 1.30 with refreshments served afterwards

Venue – Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, 232-242 St Vincent Street, Glasgow G2 5RJ

To book – Email library@rcpsg.ac.uk or phone 0141 221 6072. This is a free event but places are limited.

Glasgow History of Medicine Seminars – Autumn 2016 Programme

The Centre for the History of Medicine (part of the Institute of Health and Wellbeing at Glasgow University) and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow invite you to a series of free seminars on medical history.

Tuesday, 15 November 2016
Building for the mentally ill; from Bethlem to the community
Professor Richard Mindham (University of Leeds)

Tuesday, 6 December 2016
“Do you have a frog to guide you?”: Exploring the ‘asylum’ spaces of R.D. Laing
Dr Cheryl McGeachan (University of Glasgow)

Meetings take place at 5:30pm in the library at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow (tea and coffee from 5pm). It’s free to attend but please book (library@rcpsg.ac.uk or call 0141 221 6072).

Programme of talks for the Autumn sessions of the Glasgow History of Medicine Seminars

Programme of talks for the Autumn sessions of the Glasgow History of Medicine Seminars

The semi-flexible gastroscope

In her latest blog post, Digitisation Project Intern Kirsty Earley looks at the technology behind a mid 20th century gastroscope.

The development of gastroscopy and endoscopy evolved during the 19th century. Philipp Bozzini in the early 1800s is regarded as the first to attempt to see inside the body using a light source – at this stage candlelight and mirrors. The use of electric light in the later 19th century advanced the procedure. In 1868 Adolph Kussmaul tested a rigid gastroscope on a sword-swallower to establish the line from mouth to stomach.

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Rigid gastroscope in Mayer & Meltzer catalogue, c1914

Prior to any form of recording technology, visualization of the gastrointestinal tract could only be achieved via rigid gastroscopes. These were essentially long telescopes through which the physician could view inside of the patient’s stomach (see illustration above and below).

gastroscope-illustration

Due to the limitations on flexibility, the patient had to be positioned in order that the gastroscope could simply slide down the oesophagus towards the stomach. It would then be rotated to visualize all areas of the stomach. Not the easiest of procedures. For gastroscopy to advance, something had to be done to the gastroscope itself.

Rudolf Schindler (1888-1968) was a German doctor who specialised in gastroenterology. Considered the “father of gastroscopy”, Schindler made incredible efforts to promote the use of gastroscopy as a diagnostic technique for gastrointestinal conditions [1].

Schindler was the brains behind the first ever semi-flexible gastroscope, created in 1931 [2]. He constructed the gastroscope in such a manner that the distal end could be rotated, while the proximal end remained stationary (see image below). This allowed easier access to all areas of the stomach. But how did he test his design? Often, his instruments were tested on his own children, especially his daughter Ursula as she had a strong gag reflex [3].

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One of our mid 20th century gastroscopes

To ensure that procedures were being carried out safely, Schindler trained practitioners in how to use his gastroscope as a diagnostic tool. He argued for many years that gastroscopy should not become a specialised field of medicine, but an examination technique performed by any level of practitioner.

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Detail of mid 20th century gastroscope

Ultimately, the gastroscope was replaced by fiberoptic endoscopes [4]. Instead of a flexible distal end, the entire length of the fibreoptic endoscope was flexible. This allowed the patient to be in a more natural position, e.g. sitting up, during the examination, [5].

Gastroscopy today involves examining components of the gastrointestinal system by inserting a wire-like endoscope down the patient’s throat. The endoscope contains a camera and light, and is controlled by the physician performing the examination. The images from the camera are then fed to a monitor screen for visualization.

References

  1. Gerstner, P., 1991. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: a history. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 37(2).
  2. Olympus, date unknown. Olympus History: VOL 1 The Origin of Endoscopes. [online] Available at: http://www.olympus-global.com/en/corc/history/story/endo/origin/.
  3. Schindler Gibson, U., 1988. Rudolf Schindler, MD: living with a Renaissance man. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 34(5).
  4. DiMarino, A.J., and Benjamin, S.B., 2002. Gastrointestinal Disease: An Endoscopic Approach. Slack Incorporated: New Jersey.
  5. Hirschowitz, B., 1961. Endoscopic Examination of the Stomach and Duodenal Cap with the Fiberscope. The Lancet, 277(7186).

Old and new surgical tools

Our Digitisation Project Intern expands on the previous post about Dr Harry Lillie’s medical bag.

The recent donation of a medical bag belonging to Dr Harry R.Lillie, a medical officer aboard whaling ships during World War Two, revealed some interesting stories. It also highlighted fascinating insights in the development of basic surgical instruments.

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Dr Lillie’s surgical kit

Within the bag, one item drew much attention- a set of surgical tools (above). These tools drew attention not because of their scarcity, or obscurity, but because of their profound similarities to modern tools used today.

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1939 or 2016?

A set of modern dissection tools was located and compared with the surgical tools found in Lillie’s surgical case. The designs of the tools are very similar, as are their materials. Modern dissection tools are made of stainless steel, as are Lillie’s. Most surgical instrument makers adopted stainless steel since its popularity grew in the 1930s. Even the canvas bags are remarkably similar.

kirstys-tools

2016 or 1939?

Apart from some signs of wear and tear, it is hard to believe these two surgical kits have over 75 years between them.

 

Dr Harry R. Lillie

We recently received an unusual donation, and one that holds an incredible story. A medical bag belonging to Dr Harry R. Lillie was generously given to the College, along with a copy of his book The Path through Penguin City (1955). In this blog post our Digitisation Project Intern Kirsty Earley explains its significance.

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Dr Lillie’s medical bag

 

Dr Harry Russell Lillie was a surgeon and medical officer aboard British whaling ships in the Antarctic during the 1940s. Originally from Dundee, Lillie received his MB ChB from the University of St Andrews in 1939, previously graduating with a BSc Engineering in 1926.

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Dr Lillie’s Baumanometer

He began his career at sea during the whaling season of 1946-1947. Serving up to 600 sailors at a time, Lillie was putting his surgical skills to good use at sea [1]. Life at sea was always busy, and certainly not a 9-5 job. Surgeons and medical officers had to be ready to deal not only with common illnesses contracted at sea, but also severe injuries of the whaling profession. It wasn’t unheard of for sailors to find themselves inside the mouth of the whale they were trying to hunt:

“Trapped with only his boots sticking out as the jaws came together, he got off with a moderately crushed chest and emphysema from the neck to the waist, but was back on his job in six weeks.” [1]

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Dr Lillie’s surgical kit

As well as exercising his medical skills, Lillie was able to observe the conditions and methods of whaling in the Antarctic. The hunting of whales has been performed since prehistoric times, however the reasons for hunting whales has changed over time. Whales have been targeted as a food source for some communities, as well as being killed for oil and blubber.

The tools used to kill whales have evolved over the years. Lillie describes in detail the specific methods sailors used to take down their prey, and, as the true scientist he was, didn’t leave out any details. “Explosive Harpoons” were used to take down the whale instead of standard iron harpoons used previously. These harpoons had a delayed mechanism, where the spear would pierce the whale’s tissue, and then explode via implanted grenades after a few seconds. As would be expected with such a large mammal, death wasn’t immediate; often it required several hours for the whale to die after more than one harpoon fired.

Such scenes were the cause of Lillie’s campaigning for new whaling laws. He reported the horrific methods used to kill whales to make a clear point- things had to change. And things did change. His book The Path through Penguin City was published in 1955 and remains to be one of the most influential books in whaling conservation. Here he uses helpful imagery to explain the how horrible whaling was:

“If we can imagine a horse having two or three explosive spears stuck in its stomach and being made to pull a butcher’s truck through the streets of London while it pours blood into the gutter, we shall have an idea of the method of killing. The gunners themselves admit that if whales could scream the industry would stop, for nobody would be able to stand it.” [2]

It was this work that led to the formation of several conservation groups, including the International Whaling Commission, [3]. In fact, Sir David Attenborough has quoted Lillie’s work when discussing the still present inhumane methods of whaling [4].

With such an interesting background, it is safe to say that there is still much to discover about H.R.Lillie, his workings as a surgeon and as a conservationist.

References

  1. Lillie, H.R., 1949. With whales and seals. The British Medical Journal, 2(4642), p.1467-1468.
  2. Lillie, H.R., 1955. The Path through Penguin City. Benn Publishers.
  3. Society for the Advancement of Animal Wellbeing. Whaling. Available at: http://www.saawinternational.org/whaling.htm.
  4. Kirby, A., 2004. Whaling too cruel to continue. BBC News. [online] Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3542987.stm.

Uncovering our Medical Instruments

We recently appointed a Digitisation Project Intern for Uncovering our Medical Instruments, a project which aims to make our collections much more accessible and visible. Kirsty will be photographing and researching our instrument collection, and sharing them as much as possible, via this blog, @RCPSGlibrary and the Museum Collection pages on our website.

Opthalmic Mask Higher Exposure

Ophthalmic Phantom, c1900 – 1920 (for teaching eye surgery)

The project will delve into our Instrument Store to uncover medical and surgical instruments and equipment that is rarely seen. These collections date from the 18th – 20th century, many with a link to Glasgow. As well as making these collections more visible online, the project will also contribute to our exhibition programme and pop-up displays.

Photography set up 3

Pop-up studio

So far Kirsty has been trying out some new kit and testing backgrounds. Many of the instruments are metallic so achieving the right conditions for digitisation can be challenging. The collections also vary in size, from tiny surgical needles to heavy respiratory equipment. Some items can’t be displayed traditionally, so we will develop digital displays to complement our exhibition space.

WT microscope side view high contrast

Wilson Type Microscope

Uncovering our Medical Instruments is a nine month project, kindly supported by Museums Galleries Scotland. During that time, we hope to provide access to hundreds more instruments from our collections.