16th Century Surgery & Comic Creation

Origin / foundation stories are so important to an organisation’s identity.  The foundation story should always address the questions – Why do we exist? Why do we do what we do? This theory has been well-used in marketing and branding, from products such as drinks and shoes, to film and literary franchises. We’re lucky at the College to have a very clear link from our foundations in 1599 to our current aims – to set the highest possible standards of healthcare.

Flyer for the event Glasgow's Marvellous Medicine - A comics workshop with Adam Murphy

Yet, there are challenges in how we communicate this. How do you engage audiences with the origins of a 16th century medical and surgical college? In November we worked with leading comic book artist and writer Adam Murphy for a creative workshop with families. Inspired by the 16th century foundations of the College and its enigmatic founder Maister Peter Lowe, Adam led us on a journey of comic creation. Under the gaze of the Maister himself in our College Hall, Adam used Lowe’s 1597 book The Whole Course of Chirurgerie and our 1599 Royal Charter to create graphic stories of surgical and medical improvement.

We invited families along and the event sold out very quickly, mainly through social media promotion and Glasgow event listings. It was important for us to hold the event in our main historical space, College Hall, where portraits of our 16th century founders are on display.

img_0205-copy

The workshop kicks off in College Hall

 

Adam kicked things off by setting the scene of a character seeking medical care in the 16th century, and the various options available: the heavy-handed barber-surgeon, the expensive physician, or the unpredictable remedies of folk medicine. Then, via our 1599 Charter, he introduced the idea of surgical training and licencing of practitioners. Never before have the words “Out of the way, losers!” been attributed to the College founder!

img_0210-copy

Adam’s initial rough sketches

 

The young people and adults taking part got hands-on instruction on the basics of comic creation, how to build characters, sequence stories, and most importantly, to take risks and make mistakes.

Participants spent some time viewing a pop-up display of our surgical instruments and old medicine cabinets, sketching these and incorporating them into their own stories. The audience chose a large amputation saw as the item for Adam to demonstrate some drawing tips (capturing the impact of the saw’s teeth, for example!).

img_0213-copy

Viewing and sketching museum collections in the Lower Library

Wild ideas and the creative imagination took over, and participants let loose with a whole range of comic strip stories, all of which retained a link to the medical and surgical foundations of the workshop. Adam captured some of these ideas – particularly the introduction of a unicorn character which gets its horn cut off by a careless barber-surgeon.

img_0218-copy

Adam capturing some audience ideas

The event was a great way to engage a completely new audience with our early history. Participants left knowing much more about the College’s place in Glasgow’s history and in Scotland’s medical history. And our feedback shows that many went home to draw more comics! We look forward to developing further creative events to open up our heritage and collections to a wider audience.

Find out more about Adam’s work at www.adammurphy.com.

The event was kindly supported by Scottish Book Trust’s Live Literature Scotland scheme.

sbt-main-logo-print

Glasses through the Ages: What’s Your Style?

Our digitisation intern, Kirsty Earley, takes a look at some of the fascinating items in our spectacles collection.

Eric Morecambe, John Lennon, Harry Potter – all figures who made glasses iconic. There are scores of celebrities (and fictional characters!) who have had an impact on the popularity of certain styles of glasses, which was certainly unique to the 20th century. From monocles to aviators, the styles of glasses and frames available today are as varied as ever. What were once used as modes of magnifying written text can now simply be worn as a fashion accessory. And with any item of fashion, there were clear trends in eyewear throughout history.

Folding pince-nez style spectacles

Folding pince-nez style spectacles

It is uncertain as to who invented glasses for eyewear, but it is known that they originated in Italy between the 13th and 14th centuries.1 Originally, glasses did not have sides2 that hooked over either ear, but instead were held on the bridge of the nose. This style was known as the Rivet Spectacle (Figure 1). Due to the lack of support, it wasn’t uncommon for the wearer to have to adjust to a position where the glasses wouldn’t fall off!3

illustration of Rivet Spectacles

Figure 1: Illustration of Rivet Spectacles

From the rivet emerged the Scissor Spectacles, which were originally manufactured during the 1700s.4 Named after their similarity to the scissor shape, these glasses were linked to a handle for easier use. Understandably, these glasses were not for constant wear, but rather occasional viewing. Their design led the way for a style of spectacle popular amongst opera fans – the Lorgnette.

The lorgnette was invented in 1770 by George Adams.3 Although inspired by the design of scissor spectacles, the lorgnette differs in that one lens is directly attached to the handle rather than both (Figure 2).

Lorgnettes

Figure 2: Lorgnettes

The example of a lorgnette in the College museum collection contains a spring mechanism, making it easier to carry (Figure 3).

Lorgnettes

Figure 3: The lorgnettes had a spring mechanism which enabled the wearer to fold them away when not needed.

Another style of spectacle held within the museum collection is the Pince-Nez (Figure 4). Literally translated to “to pinch the nose”, pince-nez glasses were popularly worn by President Theodore Roosevelt. Although lacking sides, the pince-nez remained stationary due to the pinch of the bridge of the spectacle on the nose, and could avoid damage by securing an ear chain to one side.

pince-nez

Figure 4: Pince-nez

The production of the pince-nez remained active well into the 20th century, and is still worn by some people today.

Frames with sides passing over either ear had been around since around the early 18th century, but this style became more and more popular during the 20th century. By this point in time, plastic frames, as well as metal frames, also became available for purchase. These frames tended to be much more durable and comfortable.

Wire framed spectacles

Wire framed spectacles

After the founding of the National Health Service in 1948, members of the public could receive free eye tests and also claim a free pair of glasses through the NHS.3 Although not the most aesthetically pleasing glasses, the number of people requiring spectacles was high. This ultimately led to glasses being seen as a fashion accessory rather than a sign of poor eyesight. Indeed today, the style and colour of glasses worn by an individual can reflect part of their personality, their identity.

Although the primary function of glasses in aiding eyesight has not changed over the years, the styles and designs have. There is now greater choice than ever, with even more emphasis on how the glasses look rather than what they do.

References

  1. Stein, H.A., Stein, R.M., and Freeman, M.I., 2012. The Ophthalmic Assistant: A Text for Allied and Associated Ophthalmic Personnel. Elsevier Health Sciences: China.
  2. The College of Optometrists, 2016. A bit on the side – The development of spectacle sides. [online] Available at: http://www.college-optometrists.org/en/college/museyeum/online_exhibitions/spectacles/side.cfm.
  3. The College of Optometrists, 2016. Rivet Spectacles. [online] Available at: http://www.college-optometrists.org/en/college/museyeum/online_exhibitions/spectacles/rivet.cfm.
  4. American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2016. Museum of Vision: Spectacles 1700s. [online] Available at: http://www.museumofvision.org/collection/sets/?key=26.

Update (22nd December 2016): Many thanks to Neil Handley (@neilhandleyuk), curator of the British Optical Association Museum at the College of Optometrists, for lending his expertise to correct some inaccuracies in an earlier version of this post.

Macewen on wounds

We have had a lot of interest in our collection of the papers of Sir William Macewen recently, particularly the material relating to his early position as Police Surgeon in Glasgow (1871 – 1875). This relatively small part of the collection represents a short, formative and under-researched part of his distinguished career. It nevertheless contains fascinating material that provides some insight into the early work of the great surgeon. The focus of this post is on Macewen’s treatment of and research on wounds during this period.

The Private Journal (of surgical cases) covering 1872 – 1875 contains notes on a wide range of Police Office cases. Possibly the most common type of case is the treatment of wounds, usually penetrating wounds caused by assault or accident (the example above shows notes and illustration of a head wound). Macewen was interested in both the effective treatment of wounds via investigative surgery, and research into the specific causes of wounds for forensic purposes. These interests resulted in two notable articles in the Glasgow Medical Journal.

1876 saw the publication of his article ‘Wounds in relation to the instruments which produce them’ (Glasgow Medical Journal, viii, 1876). In the article title (above) he was listed as Casualty Surgeon, and also Lecturer in Medical Jurisprudence at the University. In addition to its original purpose as an aid to accurate wound diagnosis, this extraordinary article provides a detailed catalogue of the clinical results and context of (mainly) violent crime in the city at a specific period. Detail includes the range of weapons used, and the context of the wounds caused by assault and accident (many involving alcohol). The image below shows how Macewen presented this data, and the eclectic range of instruments identified as causing the wounds.

tablesIn the article’s introduction, Macewen sets the context of these cases with an intriguing commentary before beginning his rigorous analysis:

The observations in the present paper were made on the living, as accident in part, but mainly the physical expression of human passion […].”

In addition to his move into forensic medicine, this period also saw Macewen challenge the conventional wisdom of surgical textbooks (and their esteemed authors). In 1872 and 1873 he noted several cases of treatment of wounds, particularly of the lungs, for example a case involving a 12 year old boy with a life-threatening knife wound. By adopting a bold, investigative approach (which was not at the time recommended when treating damage to the lungs), Macewen was able to locate a fragment of the knife in the lung. He then removed the fragment, using the antiseptic approach developed by his ex-teacher Joseph Lister. The page from the journal below records this case.

img_0233

Private Journal of Surgical Cases (RCPSG10/9/12)

His resulting article ‘Penetrating wounds of thorax and abdomen treated antiseptically’ (Glasgow Medical Journal, vii, 1875) was explicit in its criticism of the contemporary textbook approach to the lung. In his remarks on the case, he challenges the assertion made in recent surgical literature that the surgeon “should throw aside all direct or manipulative modes of investigation.” Instead, he boldly asserts that –

If, without complicating the original injury, an investigation is enabled to be made into the nature of such wounds, and an intelligent treatment thereby adopted instead of groping in the dark, an advance in surgery has been made.”

It is worth bearing in mind that at the time of writing, Macewen was still only in his mid-20s, and employed in one of the most junior surgical positions available.

In addition, he emphasised the adherence to Lister’s antiseptic approach to treating the wounds. In return, Lister wrote Macewen a note, congratulating him on the successful removal of the fragment of pocket knife specifically. This is among a number of items of correspondence between Macewen and Lister in our collections.

Helping others

Latest blog post from our digitisation intern, Kirsty Early.

A recent focus of research for the digitisation project has been a medical bag dating from the 1930s. More specifically, the focus has been on the doctor who owned the medical bag, Dr. Maud Perry Menzies.

Medical bag of Dr Maud Perry Menzies

Medical bag of Dr Maud Perry Menzies

Dr. Menzies earned her medical degree at the University of Glasgow, graduating in 1934. Not only was she one of the minority of females graduating from medicine at that time, but she was the top ranking student in Surgery, receiving the Sir William Macewen Medal for her efforts.

Menzies had a passion for helping and healing members of the public, which was evident in her work as a general practitioner and a medical officer [1]. The outbreak of war lead to the spreading of many infectious diseases across Europe, including Diphtheria. This is an airborne condition caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium Diphtheriae. An indicator of infection is the appearance of a grey membrane at the back of the throat, which can lead to breathing and eating problems.

Due to its mode of transmission, diphtheria was particularly prevalent in major cities such as Glasgow. The child death rate in Glasgow was the highest in Europe at the time, primarily due to the crowded and unsanitary conditions of the slums [2]. Thankfully, the vaccine for diphtheria had been in practice since the 1920s, so action could be taken to prevent the spread of the disease. The vaccination would have been administered by an intramuscular injection using a syringe and hypodermic needle, such as the one pictured below (Fig 1).

Hypodermic needle

Fig 1: Hypodermic needle

Other infectious diseases would have required multi-puncture vaccinations, with several needles puncturing the skin simultaneously. This method was accomplished using vaccinators (Fig 2.). The needles were dipped in the vaccine, which would then be injected into the patient during the puncture.

Vaccinator

Fig 2: Vaccinator

As an assistant medical officer of health, Dr. Menzies launch an immunisation campaign for diphtheria in Rutherglen. She also went on to work for the RAMC during the European Campaign of the Second World War, returning to Glasgow to become the principal medical officer for the school health service [1]. Such was her drive for helping others.

References
1. Dunn, M., and Wilson, T.S. 1997. Obituaries: Maud Perry Menzies. The British Medical Journal, 2, 433.
2. Reid, E., 2014. The lesson my father taught me. Herald Scotland [online]. Available at: http://www.heraldscotland.com/opinion/13168642.The_lessons_my_father_taught_me/

Glasgow History of Medicine Seminars – Autumn 2016 Programme

The Centre for the History of Medicine (part of the Institute of Health and Wellbeing at Glasgow University) and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow invite you to a series of free seminars on medical history.

Tuesday, 15 November 2016
Building for the mentally ill; from Bethlem to the community
Professor Richard Mindham (University of Leeds)

Tuesday, 6 December 2016
“Do you have a frog to guide you?”: Exploring the ‘asylum’ spaces of R.D. Laing
Dr Cheryl McGeachan (University of Glasgow)

Meetings take place at 5:30pm in the library at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow (tea and coffee from 5pm). It’s free to attend but please book (library@rcpsg.ac.uk or call 0141 221 6072).

Programme of talks for the Autumn sessions of the Glasgow History of Medicine Seminars

Programme of talks for the Autumn sessions of the Glasgow History of Medicine Seminars

Seeing the Invisible: Microscope Collection

Latest blog post from our digitisation intern, Kirsty Early.

Today, there are a variety of methods that enable us to visualize objects of microscopic proportions, from electron microscopes to light microscopes. However, the physical mechanisms of magnification were once a mystery to the human race.

Thousands of years ago, it was understood that water affected the view of an object. This was due to the manner in which water interacted with light, a concept known as refraction. Years later, philosopher Robert Bacon described the magnifying properties of lenses [1]. His major work Opus Majus was a milestone in the field of optics, with the first optical microscope being developed in the 16th century.

Within the College’s museum collection are several types of microscopes from the 18th to 20th centuries. Designs vary, which reflects the progression and improvement of microscopic technology. The Wilson-Type Microscope was designed by James Wilson in 1702, not as replacement for other microscopes, but simply as an alternative magnification tool [2].

Wilson-type microscope

Wilson-type microscope

Samples to be examined were placed onto a slide containing lenses of different magnification strengths. The position of the eyepiece could then be manipulated by a screw-mechanism, allowing the viewer to see different components of the target object more clearly.

Wilson-type microscope

Wilson-type microscope

Also within the collection is a Culpeper-style microscope (1725), whose design is not dissimilar to a Galileo microscope. Edmund Culpeper was an English instrument maker in the late 17th century. Although having made simple microscopes before, his personal design included a compound microscope with a tripod stand [3]. The tool was so popular that it continued to be manufactured for the next century [4].

Culpepper-type microscope

Culpepper-type microscope

The College has many resources on the life and works of Lord Lister, the pioneer of antiseptic surgery, but it also contains an example of his father’s work. Pictured below is an achromatic microscope manufactured by Andrew Pritchard, an optician and instrument maker of the mid-1800s. Joseph Jackson Lister, Lord Lister’s father, was a wine merchant with an interest in the study of optics [4]. His creation of a more accurate achromatic lens allowed for higher resolution viewing, and earned himself a fellowship in the Royal Society. Achromatic lenses focus light of different wavelengths in the same plane, hence producing a sharper microscopic image. This development in microscopic technology was truly revolutionary [5].

achromatic microscope manufactured by Andrew Pritchard

Achromatic microscope manufactured by Andrew Pritchard

The final example of microscope within the College collection is a monocular microscope from the 1900s.This microscope is most similar in design to those seen in laboratories today, although many today will be binocular. It contains a stand onto which a microscopic slide is mounted, kept in place by two pegs on either side. The light mechanism from the bottom is directed through the lens by a mirror, which reflects the light of its surroundings. Unlike the other microscopes, this model contains a simple switch mechanism that allows the magnification to be altered between 2/3” and 1/6 “.

monocular microscope

Monocular microscope c1900

Before the invention of the microscope, the only observations of the body were those visible to the human eye. However, under the microscope a whole new world was discovered.

References
1. Bacon, R., 1267. Opus Majus.
2. Wilson, J., 1702. The description and manner of using a late-invented set of small pocket microscopes, made by James Wilson; which with great ease are apply’d in viewing opake, transparent and liquid objects: as the farina of the flowers of plants etc. The circulation of blood in living creatures etc. The animalcula in semine, etc. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 23, pp. 1241-1247.
3. 3. Clay, R.S., and Court, T.H., 1925. The development of the culpepper microscope. Journal of the Royal Microscopal Society, 45(2), pp. 167-173.
4. Allen, E., and Turk, J.L., 1982. Microscopes in the Hunterian Museum. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 64(6), pp. 414-418.
5. Bracegirdle, B., 1977. J.J. Lister and the establishment of histology. Medical History, 21(2), pp. 187-191.

Beloved Poison

Monday, 21 November 2016. 6:30pm – 9pm

This November we’ll be taking part in Book Week Scotland. We’ll be joined by Author ES Thomson, who will be chatting with publisher Adrian Searle (Freight Books) about the inspiration and research behind her highly acclaimed Victorian medical thriller, Beloved Poison.

Set in Victorian London, Beloved Poison follows apothecary Jem Flockhart who makes a gruesome discovery in the gloomy chapel of St Saviour’s Infirmary. The story takes the reader from the bloody world of the operating theatre to the notorious squalor of Newgate and the gallows as Jem struggles against a powerful adversary to unravel the mystery surrounding six tiny coffins filled with dried flowers and mouldering rags.

Join us from 6:30pm onwards for a glass of wine before Elaine and Adrian take to the stage at 7pm in our beautiful Lower Library.

The event is free to attend but please contact us to book as places are limited. You can book at library@rcpsg.ac.uk or by calling 0141 221 6072.

Flyer advertising Beloved Poison

Elaine Thomson
Elaine Thomson has a PhD in the history of medicine and works as a university lecturer in Edinburgh. She was shortlisted for the Saltire First Book Award, the Scottish Arts Council First Book Award, and the McIlvanney Prize 2016.

Adrian Searle
Adrian Searle studied History Edinburgh University and Creative Writing at Glasgow University. He is founding co-editor of Gutter. Freight Books won the Saltire Society Literary Award for Scottish Publisher of the Year 2015.